India is one of the largest producers of Milk and milk products. There are number of Dairies in India who is producing Skimmed milk powder, Butter, Cheese and other dairy products. Whole milk is collected in small center and then transported to main dairy where first milk to be collected in storage tank and then pasteurized so that bacteria will removed from whole milk. As per requirement product milk is to be processed further.Membrane technology will definitely helpful for improvement in quality, saving in energy as well as in some cases recovery of byproducts.
Among the food industries, dairy industry is most polluting in regards to its large water consumption because water has been a key processing medium. Environmental protection agencies have started a strict vigil for banning of wastewater discharge into the natural resources of water. This has made the water treatment more expensive thereby becoming a huge burden for the industries. Thus, water reuse has become an environmentally and economically feasible solution. But water reuse becomes more challenging by employing conventional treatment processes due to wide fluctuations in industrial effluent quality. It has been shown that membrane processes to be convenient to treat dairy wastewater for recovering of milk components and producing reusable water i.e. usable in the washing of floors, and replacing of water in cooling towers or boiler, etc. But the major problem facing by the membrane installers is fouling of membrane materials, however many of advanced techniques were developed for overcoming the fouling problems. Depending on the size of permeable particles, membranes are divided into four major types namely Microfiltration membranes (MF), Ultra filtration membranes (UF), Nano-filtration membranes (NF) and Reverse Osmosis membranes (RO).